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  • Writer's pictureJennifer Harris, PsyD

6 Physiological Factors that Impact Mental Health

An illustration of a person with abstract imagery indicating physical factors impacting mental health

The relationship between physical and mental well-being is undeniable. While anxiety and depression are often thought of as purely psychological issues, they can be profoundly influenced by various physical and medical conditions. From thyroid imbalances to gastrointestinal disorders, the connection between our bodies and minds is profound and multifaceted. We will briefly explore some common physiological factors, medical conditions and their impact on mental health.


Nutrition plays a vital role in both physical and mental health. The foods we consume provide the building blocks for neurotransmitters, hormones, and other essential molecules involved in mood regulation. Nutrient deficiencies, such as those in vitamins B12, D, and omega-3 fatty acids, have been linked to an increased risk of anxiety and depression. Additionally, diets high in processed foods, sugars, and unhealthy fats have been associated with poorer mental health outcomes.

Sleep Deficiency

Quality sleep is essential for maintaining optimal mental health. Chronic sleep deprivation disrupts the body's stress response system, increasing susceptibility to anxiety and depression. Sleep disturbances have also been associated with alterations in neurotransmitter levels and heightened emotional reactivity. Addressing sleep issues through good sleep hygiene practices and addressing underlying medical conditions can significantly improve mood and overall well-being.

Thyroid Issues

The thyroid gland plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and energy levels throughout the body. When the thyroid is underactive (hypothyroidism) or overactive (hyperthyroidism), it can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, weight changes, and mood disturbances. Hypothyroidism has been linked to symptoms of depression, while hyperthyroidism may manifest as anxiety and irritability. Routine physical exams can help professionals discover if thyroid functioning is impacting your mental wellbeing.

Hormonal Imbalances

Hormonal fluctuations can profoundly impact mood and emotional stability. Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), menopause, and adrenal insufficiency are characterized by hormonal imbalances that can contribute to symptoms of anxiety and depression. Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol levels play intricate roles in modulating neurotransmitter activity and stress responses, highlighting the importance of hormonal balance for mental health.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Gut Health

IBS is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. While traditionally viewed as a purely physical ailment, IBS is increasingly recognized for its significant impact on mental health.

Our gastrointestinal system, often referred to as the "second brain," plays a crucial role in producing neurotransmitters that influence mood and emotional well-being. One such neurotransmitter is serotonin, often dubbed the "happiness hormone" due to its role in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep. Surprisingly, the majority of serotonin in our bodies—up to 90%—is produced in the gut, specifically within enterochromaffin cells located in the lining of the intestines.

The gut-brain axis, a bidirectional communication system between the gut and the brain, facilitates the interaction between the enteric nervous system in the gut and the central nervous system. Serotonin produced in the gut can influence communication along this axis, affecting mood, cognition, and behavior. Imbalances in gut microbiota, inflammation, or gastrointestinal disorders, such as IBS, can disrupt serotonin production and signaling, potentially contributing to mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. This highlights the importance of addressing both the physical and psychological aspects of gut health and IBS for comprehensive management.


Migraine headaches are often accompanied by symptoms such as nausea, fatigue, and sensitivity to light and sound. Beyond the physical discomfort, migraines can also take a toll on mental health. The chronic nature of migraines, along with their unpredictable onset and debilitating symptoms, can lead to feelings of anxiety, depression, and reduced quality of life. Managing migraines effectively, through lifestyle modifications, medication, and stress management techniques, can help alleviate both the physical and psychological burden of this condition.



To conclude, the relationship between our physical and mental health is complex and multifaceted. From nutritional imbalances to hormonal fluctuations and gut health, various physiological factors can influence the onset and severity of anxiety and depression. Recognizing and addressing these underlying medical conditions is crucial for comprehensive mental health care, emphasizing the interconnectedness of body and mind in achieving overall well-being.

By adopting a holistic approach that addresses both physical and psychological factors, individuals can take proactive steps towards better mental health and improved quality of life. For help exploring your relationship with these issues, reach out to one of our therapists here.


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